Job versus position
Job - a group of related duties, tasks and behaviours performed by one or more individuals
Position - The number of individuals who are performing the duties, tasks and behaviours requierd by a specific job
Job Analysis- the analysis of subdivided work in the organization, both at a level of the individual job and for the entire flow of the production process.

Job analysis includes documentation of the KSA's (knowledge, skills and abilities) and experience associated with successful job performance.

The written outcomes of this process are referred to as either a job description or a job specification. The difference between the two documents centres on whether the emphasis is on the duties or tasks to be carried out on the job (i.e., the job description) or on the competencies or KSAs the jobholder must possess to be a sucessful performer in a specific job (i.e., the job specification).

Job Description-A recognized list of functions, tasks, accountabilities, working conditions, and competencies for a particular occupation or job.
Job Specification-A written statement that explains what a job demands of job holders and the human skills and factors required.

KSAs are defines as:
Knowledge: The body of information, usually of a factual or procedural nature, that allows an individual to perform a task successfully.
Skill: The individual's level of proficiency or competency in performing a specific task. Level of competency is typically expressed in numerical terms.
Ability: A more general, enduring trait or capability an individual possesses at the time when he or she first begins to perform a task.
Other Attributes: Include work experience.

Job analysis is the foundation for all HR activities:
- Before we can meaningfully advertise jobs and recruit individuals to fill job vacancies identified by the HR planning process, to attract the desired applicants we must be able to specify the individual competencies that we seek.
- The selection process will incorporate employment tests and interview quesitons based on the need to choose the individual who best meets the formal requirements for success identified by our job analysis process.
- The selection criteria that flow out of the job analysis process are also used in succession planning.
- Compensation systems in organizations typically use a classification process based on compensable factors of the job that are explicitly formalized by the job analysis process.
- Successful career planning programs also draw heavily on the front-end requirement of a comprehensive job analysis.
-Any efforts to improve employee prodcutivity levels requires a study of all jobs.
-In order to avoid discrimination, it may be necessary to eliminate some unnecessary job requirements through the use of a job analysis.
-Determining the training needs of employees may be reliant on job analysis information.

This link provides a completed sample of a Job Analysis

Compensable Factors- knowledge and skills, effort, responsibility, and working conditions.

Scientific Management: examines two main aspects of each job in the organization - (1) the methods employed and (2) the time measurement for task completion

Job Analysis is vital in effective HR Planning to ensure the best fit between workers and work requirements, and the individual and organizational needs:
1. Job Analysis ensures that the effects of recent changes have been included into job descriptions and specifications
2. Remove redundancies and/or develop or expand jobs/work activities for the most effective and efficient ways to a)organize work b)specify core work activities and c)properly structure the organization based on key strategic business goals
3. Compare and contrast the degree of similarity or difference between geographically diverse operating units and personnel, thereby facilitating more effective restructuring programs

Problems Associated with Job Analysis:
1. Job Analysis That Is Neither Updated Nor Reviewed
2. Job Description of Specification That Is Too Vague
3. Contamincation and Deficiency
*deficiency: an error of omission when a job description or specification fals to incorporate important aspects of the job required for success
* contamincation: an error that occurs when unimportant or invalid behaviours or attributes are incorporated into a job description or specification
4. Time and Costs of Job Analysis

The Process of Job Analysis
1 - Determine the Job or Process to Be Analyzed
  • Benchmarks – external comparators for organizational jobs and performance criteria
  • National Occupational Classification (NOC) – the Canadian government database that contains standardized job descriptions on thousands of jobs
  • Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) – the US government’s occupational database
  • Occupational Information Network (O*NET) – the US government’s most recent occupational database and equivalent to the NOC
2 - Determine Methods and Analyze the Job or Process
Selection criteria for job analysis methods include the following:
  • Cost
  • Time
  • Flexibility of Methods
  • Validity and Reliability
  • Acceptance
Sources of information include:
  • Interviews
    • 360 Degree Evaluationevaluation of attributes and performance dimensions of a job from “the full circle” around the job, (ex. feedback from subordinates, superiors, co-workers, clients, and the jobholder him/herself)
  • Observation
  • Questionnaires
  • Journals and Diaries
  • Output and Production Analysis
  • Current Job Descriptions and Specifications
3 - Examine the Recorded Data on the Job or Process
Question the data using the FIVE “Ws”:
  • Whoperforms the job?
  • What is the purpose of the job? Whatbehaviours are required for successful job performance?
  • Whenwas the last job analysis done?
  • Whereis the job performed?
  • Why does this job exist?
4 - Define and Formalize New Methods and Performance Standards for the Job or Process
  • Job analysts attempt to improve on current practices by recommending new methods and performance standards for the job
  • What changes to the job need to be made? The working conditions?
  • Are any duties and tasks missing?
  • Are all knowledge, skills and abilities specified?
5 - Maintain New Methods and Performance Standards for the Job or Process
There are four main methods:
  1. Communication and training
  2. Supervisory reinforcement
  3. Employee feedback
  4. Reward systems

Benchmarking - used in an organization to collect data that can be used to improve organizational operations. This can include changing skills or job requirements.

Working with Managers and Employees to ensure they current job is working within in the division, does it impact other units, why and how. When something is out of line what part of the job needs fixing or is it job training. By keep on top of the Job Analysis HR can ensure the positions are moving with the changing company

Specific Job Analysis Techniques
1. Critical Incide ts Technique - qualitative process of job analysis that produces bahvioural statements along a range from superior to ineffective performance for a specific job
2. Behavioural Anchored Rating Scales (BARS) - job is divided into a number of key dimensiowhee and each dimension contains a range of statements of job behaviour anchored to a numerical scale
3. Position Analysis Questionnaire ( PAQ) - a structured job analysis checklist that includes 194 items orjob elements used to rate a job
4. Functional Job Aanalysis (FJA) - analyzes the jobbBey rating three essential elements 1. People 2. Data 3. Things
5. The Hay System-Job analysis system used for compensation and organizational analysis. Use three factors to analyze each job. 1. Know-how 2. Problem-solving 3. Accountability

Competency-Based Approaches have been used to develop successful professional performance and relies on three main elements:
1. Competency-any knowledge, skills, trait, motive, attitude, value, or other personal characteristic that is essential to perform the job and that differentiates superior from solid performance.
2. Core Competencies
3. Role of specific competencies

Differences between traditional job analysis and competency-based modelling include:
1. The traditional focuses on KSAO's specific to the job whereas, CBM focuses on competencies that are common to a broader occupational group or levels of jobs within bands.
2. Traditional focuses on tasks and duties (person/job match), whereas, CBM is worker focused (person/organization match).

An interesting article on Job Analysis and the impact on the workplace:

A job analysis is the process used to collect information about the duties, responsibilities, necessary skills, outcomes, and work environment of a particular job. You need as much data as possible to put together a job description which is the frequent outcome of the job analysis. Additional outcomes include recruiting plans, position postings and advertisements, and performance development planning within your
performance management system.
The job analysis may include:
  • the job responsibilities of current employees,
  • Internet research and sample job descriptions online or offline highlighting similar jobs,
  • an analysis of the work duties, tasks, and responsibilities that need to be accomplished by the employee filling the position,
  • research and sharing with other companies that have similar jobs, and
  • articulation of the most important outcomes or contributions needed from the position.
The more information you can gather, the easier the actual task to develop the job description will be.
Link to site outlining various approaches to job analysis. To access select, right click and go to site or copy and paste to browser